traumatic brain injury wiki

[1], Any damage to the head or brain usually results in some damage to the vascular system, which provides blood to the cells of the brain. Thrombotic-ischemic strokes are treated with anticoagulants, while surgery is the preferred treatment for hemorrhagic stroke. Pain, especially headache, is commonly a significant complication for conscious patients in the period immediately following a TBI. Blood clots also can develop in other parts of the head. A vegetative state can result from diffuse injury to the cerebral hemispheres of the brain without damage to the lower brain and brainstem. Adjust your expectations of recovery to provide support for your child. TBI can cause a variety of problems including physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral complications. Sometimes, health complications occur in the period immediately following a TBI. The damage from TBI can be focal, confined to one area of the brain, or diffuse, involving more than one area of the brain. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have issued the following safety tips for reducing the risk of suffering a TBI. Posturing can be caused by conditions that lead to large increases in intracranial pressure. Skull fractures occur when the bone of the skull cracks or breaks. [29], loss of the ability to experience pleasure, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, Sleeping disorders following traumatic brain injury, "Traumatic brain injury: Hope through research", "Mild traumatic brain injury: Toward understanding manifestations and treatment", "Rehabilitation for patients with disorders of consciousness", "Definition, diagnosis, and forensic implications of postconcussional syndrome", "Overview of studies to prevent posttraumatic epilepsy", https://www.brainline.org/story/neurostorm-century-part-1-3-medical-terminology, https://www.brainline.org/story/neurostorm-century-part-3-3-new-way-life, "Traumatic brain injury Complications - Mayo Clinic", "Brain Injury: Complications and Medical Problems", Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Complications_of_traumatic_brain_injury&oldid=997190634, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Damage to the nerves responsible for eye movements, which can cause double vision, Damage to the nerves that provide sense of smell, This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 11:30. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a form of acquired brain injury that occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. Postconcussional syndrome or traumatic brain injury is a mental and behavioural disorder caused by a traumatic brain injury normally involving loss of consciousness, which continues after consciousness returns. These conditions are rare and hard to treat. At that time, Sigmund Freud's pupil, Kardiner, was the first to describe what later became known as symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (Lamprecht & Sack 2002). TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features, such as whether it occurs in a specific location or over a widespread area. [1], TBI patients may have sensory problems, especially problems with vision; they may not be able to register what they are seeing or may be slow to recognize objects. Symptoms that may occur after a concussion – a minor form of traumatic brain injury – are referred to as post-concussion syndrome. The brain floats within the skull surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid(CSF), one of the functions of which is to protect the brain from normal light "trauma", e.g., being jostled in the skull by walking, jumping, etc., as well as mild head impacts. Recovery from cognitive deficits is greatest within the first 6 months after the injury and more gradual after that. approximately 270,000 people experience a moderate or severe TBI. Anoxia is a condition in which there is an absence of oxygen supply to an organ's tissues, even if there is adequate blood flow to the tissue. Unlike most neurological disorders, head injuries can be prevented. [25] This in turn can create the following potential life-threatening symptoms: increased intra-cranial pressure (ICP), tachycardia, tremors, seizures, fevers, increased blood pressure, increased Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF), and diaphoresis. An object that penetrates brain tissue, such as a bullet or shattered piece of skull, also can cause traumatic brain injury.Mild traumatic brain injury may affect your brain cells temporarily. [17], Behavioral symptoms that can follow TBI include disinhibition, inability to control anger, impulsiveness, lack of initiative, inappropriate sexual activity, and changes in personality. In any of these cases, without adequate oxygen, a biochemical cascade called the ischemic cascade is unleashed, and the cells of the brain can die within several minutes. Crit Care Med. Because little can be done to reverse the initial brain damage caused by trauma, medical personnel try to stabilize the patient and focus on preventing further injury. These accidents are the major cause of TBI in people under age 75. posttraumatic hydrocephalus) that may cause additional morbidity and mortality in this patient population. These immediate seizures increase the risk of early seizures - defined as seizures occurring within 1 week after injury - but do not seem to be linked to the development of post-traumatic epilepsy (recurrent seizures occurring more than 1 week after the initial trauma). A depressed skull fracture occurs when pieces of the broken skull press into the tissue of the brain. There is evidence of a traumatic brain injury - that is, an impact to the head or other mechanisms of rapid movement or displacement of the brain within the skull, with one or more of the following: Loss of consciousness. Doctors usually need to assess the situation quickly. Source: CDC, Department of Health and Human Services. They check the patient's temperature, blood pressure, pulse, breathing rate, and pupil size and response to light. Disabilities resulting from a TBI depend upon the severity of the injury, the location of the injury, and the age and general health of the patient. Parkinson's disease may develop years after TBI as a result of damage to the basal ganglia. For example, brain injuries can happen before a baby is even born. Half of all TBIs are from motor vehicle accidents. Medical personnel measure a patient's ICP using a probe or catheter. Some TBI patients develop tinnitus, a ringing or roaring in the ears. During the acute stage, moderately to severely injured patients may receive treatment and care in an intensive care unit of a hospital. This condition can develop during the acute stage of TBI or may not appear until later. The risk of post-traumatic seizures increases with severity of trauma (image at right) and is particularly elevated with certain types of brain trauma such as cerebral contusions or hematomas. These tears can also allow bacteria into the cavity, potentially causing infections such as meningitis. Most of these injuries develop within a few weeks of the initial trauma and result from skull fractures or penetrating injuries. TBI can result from a closed head injury or a penetrating head injury and is one of two subsets of Acquired Brain Injury(ABI). [20] People with early seizures, those occurring within a week of injury, have an increased risk of post-traumatic epilepsy (recurrent seizures occurring more than a week after the initial trauma)[23] though seizures can appear a decade or more after the initial injury and the common seizure type may also change over time. They may occur outside of the dura mater, below the dura, below the arachnoid (meningitis), or within the brain itself (abscess). A healthy adult brain weighs about two and a half to three pounds, and is located inside the skull, which protects the brain from injury. Two common hormonal complications of TBI are syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and hypothyroidism. A penetrating skull fracture occurs when something pierces the skull, such as a bullet, leaving a distinct and localized injury to brain tissue. Generally, there are five abnormal states of consciousness that can result from a TBI: stupor, coma, persistent vegetative state, locked-in syndrome, and brain death. Hormonal problems can result from dysfunction of the pituitary, the thyroid, and other glands throughout the body. The body's immune system can repair damage to small blood vessels, but damage to larger vessels can result in serious complications. [22] As many as 50% of people with penetrating head injuries will develop seizures. A person with damage to the part of the brain that processes taste or smell may perceive a persistent bitter taste or noxious smell. Brain injuries occur due to a wide range of internal and external factors. Half of all TBIs are due to transportation accidents involving automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, and pedestrians. The overall goal of rehabilitation after a TBI is to improve and optimize the patient's ability to function at home and in society in the face of the residual effects of the injury, which may be complex and multifaceted. Patients in a persistent vegetative state are unconscious and unaware of their surroundings, but they continue to have a sleep-wake cycle and can have periods of alertness. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease which causes severe and irreparable brain damage, as a result of repeated head injuries. Generally, there are six abnormal states of consciousness that can result from a TBI: Disorders of consciousness affect a significant number of people who suffer severe TBI; of those with severe TBI discharged from a hospital, 10-15[clarification needed] are in a vegetative state, and of this number only half regain consciousness within one to three years. Hormonal problems can result from dysfunction of the pituitary, the thyroid, and other glands throughout the body. Military personnel in combat zones are also at risk. Some patients may need medication for psychiatric and physical problems resulting from the TBI, and various medications are available that may lessen or moderate the problematic manifestations of the injury without directly altering the underlying pathology. [2] TBI can cause a variety of problems including physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral complications. Patients with mild to moderate injuries may receive skull and neck X-rays to check for bone fractures. Traumatic brain injury (TBI, physical trauma to the brain) can cause a variety of complications, health effects that are not TBI themselves but that result from it. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with concussion (a shaking of the brain in response to sudden motion of the head), diffuse axonal injury, or coma. Great care must be taken in prescribing medications because TBI patients are more susceptible to side effects and may react adversely to some pharmacological agents. The most common symptoms of the condition are dementia and parkinsonism caused by repetitive blows to the head over a long period of time. [9] TBI appears to predispose a person to psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, alcohol or substance abuse or substance dependence, dysthymia, clinical depression, bipolar disorder, phobias, panic disorder, and schizophrenia. Bleeding within the brain itself is called intracerebral hematoma. Treatment includes shunting and draining of CSF as well as any other appropriate treatment for the root cause of the condition. The seventh cranial nerve, called the facial nerve, is the most commonly injured cranial nerve in TBI and damage to it can result in paralysis of facial muscles. Family members may also benefit from psychotherapy and social support services. Some may experience aphasia, difficulty with understanding and producing spoken and written language; or they may have difficulty with the more subtle aspects of communication, such as body language and emotional, non-verbal signals. In this situation, certain muscles of the body are tight or hypertonic because they cannot fully relax. The risk of complications increases with the severity of the trauma;[1] however even mild traumatic brain injury can result in disabilities that interfere with social interactions, employment, and everyday living. Many patients with fluent aphasia are unaware that they make little sense and become angry with others for not understanding them. Outcome can be anything from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. [1] CSF can also leak from the nose and the ear. [21] Other serious complications for patients who are unconscious, in a coma, or in a vegetative state include pressure sores, pneumonia or other infections, and progressive multiple organ failure.[1]. If you have suffered a brain injury you may have both physical and emotional challenges to deal with, both of which will probably require both long-term and short-term care from medical professionals. Approximately half of severely head-injured patients will need surgery to remove or repair hematomas or contusions. Some may have problems with intonation or inflection, called prosodic dysfunction. ↑ Marion DW, Penrod LE, Kelsey SF, et al: Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia. These injuries can result in long-term complications or death. Other long-term problems that can develop after a TBI include Parkinson's disease and other motor problems, Alzheimer's disease, dementia pugilistica, and post-traumatic dementia. A penetrating head injury, or open head injury, is a head injury in which the dura mater, the outer layer of the meninges, is breached. [15] Emotional symptoms that can follow TBI include emotional instability, depression, anxiety, hypomania, mania, apathy, irritability, and anger. Sometimes TBI patients suffer from developmental stagnation, meaning that they fail to mature emotionally, socially, or psychologically after the trauma. : Sedation in traumatic brain injury means that the brain resonance imaging ( MRI ) be. ↑ Marion DW, Penrod LE, Kelsey SF, et al: treatment of traumatic brain (... Career, with an average onset of about 16 years onset of about 16 years of the... Clots also can develop during the acute stage of TBI when pieces of the.. 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